Installation of electrical safety systems

Hívjon minket az alábbi villanyszerelési munkálatokért:
Be careful, protect your loved ones and yourself from unforeseen dangers!
Call us to make your home as safe as possible!

To use your electrical appliances as safely as possible in your home, you must have:

  • Proper grounding
  • Equipotential bonding
  • Residual current device (RCD)
  • Proper circuit breakers designed for wire capacities

If even one of the above is not properly executed in our home, it is only a matter of time before it becomes a problem. In the articles below, you can read in detail about why they are so important.

Ha otthonában sűrűn leold a kismegszakító, vagy a FI relé, esetleg nincsen földelés vagy EPH rendszer kialakítva, vagy csak bizonytalan az előzőek meglétében, azonnal kérje ki villanyszerelő szakember véleményét, hogy megelőzhető legyen a baj!

Grounding

In almost all electrical networks and systems for different purposes, grounding plays a role as a procedure, but in almost all cases the purpose and the device are different.
Depending on what system and the purpose for which it is used, there may be significant differences between groundings.

Of the many grounding systems, contact protection grounding is the most common in our homes, so I wouldn't discuss the rest in this case.
The purpose of contact protection (protective) grounding is to facilitate the safe use of electrical consumer equipment . In this case, the earth is located at the consumer connection and is responsible for the so-called limiting the contact voltage to an appropriate level, on the other hand, eliminating a shortage to the ground within a given time.

In English:

It is important that all sockets and consumers directly connected to the mains (eg luminaires) connect to the ground register, as the device operating from the socket or connected to the system may be short-circuited. In this case, the phase will come into conductive contact with the consumer's metal housing and touching the appliance (eg microwave, washing machine, dishwasher, electric kettle, iron, lamp, electric stove, etc.) will cause electricity to flow through us, which can be lethal!

The purpose of grounding is that if a metal case get contact with a live wire, don't let the electricity flow through our body but through the ground wire. Thus protecting us from the life-threatening electric shock caused by faulty devices!

In many older buildings, you may find that there is no ground network or, if there is one, that the individual circuits are not connected, so it is worth reviewing the electrical system of your home / house before an unexpected accident occurs.

But is grounding sufficient for complete safety? ……

..... NO! 

This is a simple answer to the previous b question, and we discuss below what is needed to create full protection.

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Equipotential bonding system

The point of Equipotential Bonding System (EBS) is connecting the different metal tubes, metal runnings and groundings with each other so thatno potential difference shall occur. We thus make sure that no one gets an electric shockafter touching a metal structure.

EBS is part of the touch protection for homes, detached houses and other buildings. For example, in a family house, during electrical installation, an EB must be installed for a boiler (where gas, water, heating pipes must be connected to the EBS node), a gas meter (for bridging a gas meter), bathtubs must also be connected (it is recommended to connect plastic tubs to the drain with metal insert with EBS conductor), also connects to the faucet and larger metal structures .

Why is it needed?

If, there is a short circuit in a residential building and current flows to the protective conductor (ground) and we just grab an iron or, an electric stove by the the metallic part, while touching the water mains or heating pipe with your other hand or body, you may receive an electric shock.

Why the water pipe would shock you?

The touched pipe is connected to any potential point of the ground but the electric system touched by another hand is connected to a potential point of the ground wire. They are connected on a metal bases, however, the ground wire getting a significant electric ground current causes a noteable electric tension, making the casualty the bridge of the electric flow.

This drop of tension can be 100 V on a regular 400/230 V system as well making it nonnegligible!

If the body of the electrical device is connected in a short way to a metal conductor with all other metal structures that can be touched at the same time, there can be virtually no contact stress between the two parts. This is the purpose and principle of individual empowerment.

So if we catch a grounded short-circuited consumer (eg iron, stove…) and for eg. the water / gas pipe at the same time, the voltage difference will cause electricity to flow through us, which can also be life-threatening!

 If there is a grounding network or EBS system, am I fully protected?

Unfortunately, the answer is again NO or only partially.

RCD

Although the danger caused by touching short-circuited bodies can be eliminated by grounding or EBS, they do not protect us in all cases. If we come in direct or indirect contact with live wires, we can be shaken by current, which is life-threatening. To prevent this, it is necessary to install a residual current device (RCD)

What is RCD?

The RCD, is the state-of-the-art device for modern contact protection and is now considered an essential tool for fault protection.

The RCD has been developed against indirect contact to prevent electric shock due to failure. The function of the circuit breaker is to detect the current flowing towards the ground. If the fault current flowing to ground exceeds the rated fault current sensitivity, the RCD switches off. So, if the body of an electrical device is energized, the RCD will automatically cut off power to the protected equipment or part of the equipment within 0.2 seconds.

The 10mA and 30mA sensitivity RCDs provide a degree of protection in the event of direct contact with active parts, i.e. in the event of accidental contact with live parts of the electrical network.

RCD also performs a fire protection function (conditionally) as it detects insulation faults. RCD are required to be installed in, among other places, construction distributors, swimming pools, health rooms, laboratories, schools, and flammable areas.

The RCD is not a stand-alone contact protection method, but an additional protection device for contact protection with a protective conductor!

So the RCD protects us from a fatal electric shock by interrupting the power supply to the network connected to it as soon as it detects that power is “leaking” so it is just starting to flow through our body or through a shorted body to earth.

When installing or renovating a new electrical network, the installation of an RCD is mandatory in households.

Essentially, if the grounding and EBS system is set up in our home and RCD are also installed, the probability of electric shock is practically 0!
If you do not have the these protection systems mentioned above installed or are unsure, call a specialist as soon as possible!

Overcurrent protection

I wrote about the protection of our lives in the previous chapters, now let’s say a few words about the protection of wires.
This function is performed by the so-called circuit breaker.

The primary function of miniature circuit breakers is to provide overload and short circuit protection to the electrical network. The cables of the equipment must be protected against harmful thermal effects due to overcurrents.

Continuous overload reduces the insulation life of wires. The current generated by a short circuit, dramatically exceeds the load capacity of the wire (which can be thousands of amperes), can destroy the insulation of the wire in a matter of seconds.

So the primary function of the circuit breaker is to automatically disconnect the circuit from the mains in excess of the rated current. The circuit breaker is practical due to its small size, and due to its ease of use. Household wire protection is now mandatory for circuit breakers, fuses have been completely pushed out of this area.

Circuit breakers can be installed with different characteristics, the difference being their tripping speed. An overcurrent protection device with an incorrectly selected trip characteristic will lead to unreasonable cut- offs or, on the contrary, an oversized circuit breaker will occur later than it should.

Röviden a kismegszakítók a vezetékek túlterhelésének elkerülését szolgálja! A nem helyesen megválaszott kismegszakító a hálózat nagyfokú túlterheléséhez és ezáltal a vezetékek kigyulladásához vezethet. Ha úgy gondolja, hogy biztosítékai már régiek, vagy nem megfelelő szakértelemmel lettek telepítve, mindenképpen hívjon villanyszerelőt!

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